Biota Ecological Benchmarks (Tissue Concentration Benchmarks)

There are a number of tissue concentration benchmarks included. Many of these are specific to a taxonomic group (avian, mammalian) or to a particular tissue. Sources included provide summary values potentially of use in screening. Measured or modeled site tissue concentrations are compared to these benchmarks to determine whether further investigations into potential risks to aquatic organisms or piscivorous wildlife are warranted. Two other good sources of tissue residue effects were not included because they do not condense reported studies into a recommended value for each chemical: Jarvinen, A.W., and G.T. Ankley. 1999. Linkage of effects to tissue residues: development of a comprehensive database for aquatic organisms exposed to inorganic and organic chemicals, Pensacola FL: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC). 364 pp. and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers/ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Residue-Effects Database (ERED). http://www.wes.army.mil/el/ered/index.html

   ECW avian and mammalian tissue concentrations

   BCMOELP 1998 pw

   CEC 1988 fish

   CCME 1999 pw

   Environment Ontario 1984 pw

   Newell et al. 1987 pw

   Swain and Holmes 1985 fish