ECW avian and mammalian tissue concentrations

Tissue residue benchmarks were derived from the SETAC special publication "Environmental Contaminants in Wildlife Interpreting Tissue Concentrations" edited by W.N. Beyer, G.H. Heinz, and A.W. Redmon-Norwood. The ECW (Environmental Contaminants in Wildlife) in the benchmark name indicates the value came from this source, which is a series of chapters by individual authors discussing tissue residue effects data for a variety of contaminants and taxonomic groups. Recommended threshold values for protection of fish or wildlife were included in the biota benchmark table. Because chemicals may have a greater effect on or accumulate to a greater degree in specific tissues within an animal, recommended values are generally tissue-specific, including avian blood, bone (dry weight), brain, carcass, egg, kidney, or liver; fish brain, egg, muscle, or whole body; and mammal blood, fat, kidney, or liver. Site tissue concentrations lower than these threshold values are not expected to cause significant adverse effects.

Beyer, W.N., G.H. Heinz and A.W. Redmon-Norwood (eds.). 1996. Environmental Contaminants in Wildlife - Interpreting Tissue Concentrations, Special Publication of SETAC, CRC Press, Inc. 494 p.