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Land Use Scenarios


The five land use scenarios considered in SADA are: future unrestricted industrial, residential, recreational, excavation, and agricultural exposures. The purpose of evaluating future land use scenarios as part of the risk assessment is to establish whether remedial action is necessary for alternate land uses by determining if the cumulative risk or hazard index from the source areas could exceed levels of concern. The future land use scenarios are based on the assumption that unrestricted industrial workers, residents, farmers, or recreational users of the area could be exposed. Current contaminant concentrations are used for the on-site assessment of future exposure. This represents a maximum exposure to contaminants in the area and will serve to define the potential human health risks that would exist if residential, unrestricted industrial, or recreational occupation were to begin within a short time frame.


Under the industrial scenario, industrial workers are expected to be routinely exposed to contaminated media within a commercial area or industrial site. The future industrial scenario is evaluated using industrial default occupational values provided by EPA. Pathways are evaluated for exposures to surface soil, sediment, and surface water. The exposures are based on the potential for the use of heavy equipment and related traffic in and around the contaminated soil and sediment in an unrestricted industrial scenario. Soils and sediment could be disturbed, thereby producing particulate emissions which could then be inhaled by the industrial worker. It should be noted that the assumptions and default parameters for the industrial land use scenario do not reflect the use of protective clothing or other safety precautions. The drinking water pathway to surface water (based on 1 L/day ingestion) is also evaluated for future industrial land use, although it is unlikely.


Under the residential land use scenario, future residents are expected to be in frequent, repeated contact with contaminated media. The assumptions in this scenario account for daily exposure over the long term and generally result in the highest potential exposures and risk. Exposure is calculated for a lifetime, which includes exposures for the receptor as both child and adult. Pathways are evaluated for exposures to surface soil, sediment, and surface water. In an industrial area where redevelopment for homes is not feasible now or in the foreseeable future, future land use planning scenarios would be more accurately reflected as industrial rather than residential. However, to provide a conservative assessment of risk, a residential land use scenario is assumed as one of the potential receptors. Consequently, appropriate default parameters and equations for residential land use are evaluated.


The recreational scenario addresses exposure to children and adults who spend a limited amount of time at or near the site while engaging in outdoor activities. The recreational land use scenario is also referred to as the trespasser or site visitor scenario. Pathways are evaluated for exposures to surface soil, sediment, and surface water.


For the excavation scenario, exposure to soil and sediment for a short period are considered to be appropriate. The exposure routes for soil and sediment for the excavation worker are: incidental ingestion, inhalation of emitted particulates and vapors, dermal contact, and external exposure to ionizing radiation.


The agricultural scenario assumes a resident is exposed to homegrown farm products. Exposure routes considered in addition to the residential pathways include the consumption of vegetables, the consumption of whole milk, and the consumption of beef.