Set Terrestrial Exposure Parameters

SADA comes preloaded with default exposure parameters for a variety of wildlife receptors, including representative herbivores, insectivores, and carnivores. Defaults are provided for each parameter, but custom values can be entered in the Set Species-specific Terrestrial Exposure Parameters Window. These parameters are used in modeling dose to each receptor from selected pathways.

To view (and change if desired) current exposure parameters, from the Ecological menu, select Configure Ecological Risk, and Set Terrestrial Exposure Parameters.

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From the resulting window, select a species and whether you want values for adult females, adult males, juveniles, or SSL. SSL follows EPA (2003) guidance for deriving ecological soil screening levels and combines data from adult males and adult females. While custom values can be entered for juveniles, SADA Version 3 does not include default values for juveniles. Note that SSL parameter values are not available for species not included in the Eco-SSL guidance.

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To change a parameter value, click on the box corresponding to that parameter, and enter the value. It is very important to use the appropriate units for all parameters.

Food ingestion rate

Food ingestion rate is expressed in terms of kg dry food/kg body weight/day. Entering an ingestion rate in kg/d that has not been adjusted for body weight will result in faulty dose estimates.

Diet

A receptors diet is described by the proportion of each food type that makes up its total diet. Food types currently allowed in SADA include plants (foliage and/or seeds), invertebrates, and vertebrates. All types of invertebrates are lumped into Fraction Insect, and all types of vertebrates are lumped into Fraction Mamm. The fraction of plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates in the diet should sum to 1.

Mammalian Prey Diet

Mammalian prey diet is only used when Fraction Mammal is >0 and no soil-to-small mammal bioaccumulation factor is available. Modeling the dose to wildlife receptors requires information on the chemical concentration in the foods they eat. This is fairly straight-forward when soil-to-plant tissue, soil-to-invertebrate tissue, or soil-to-small mammal tissue bioaccumulation factors or regressions are available, since these can be used to estimate food type concentrations directly from the chemical concentration in soil. However, for some chemicals, soil-to-small mammal tissue factors are unavailable, and only diet-to-small mammal tissue biotransfer factors are available. In order to estimate the chemical concentration in vertebrate prey of carnivorous wildlife in these cases, it is necessary to specify the diet of the vertebrate prey. The default in SADA is a small omnivorous mammal consuming 50% plants and 50% invertebrates with soil ingestion equal to 3% of its total food ingestion. The concentration in the diet of the vertebrate prey is then multiplied by the diet-to-tissue transfer factor to estimate the chemical concentration in vertebrate prey.

Soil ingestion

Wildlife receptor soil ingestion is expressed as a fraction of overall ingestion rate.

Dermal Contact

Adherence factor

The adherence factor is a measure of the tendency for soil to adhere to skin. The data necessary to estimate the dermal adherence factor for wildlife are generally limited or not available. Therefore, a conservative human health value of 1 mg/cm2 (0.000001 kg/cm2) is set as the default for the species provided in SADA (EPA 1992). This value is based on results for laboratory rodents and was developed by shaving the fur and applying the contaminant directly to the exposed skin. However, feathers of birds, fur on mammals, and scales on reptiles are believed to reduce dermal exposure by limiting the contact of the skin surface with the contaminated media (EPA 2000). The user can customize these values if guidance or data is available.

Surface area

Defaults for wildlife receptor surface area (cm2) are based on published studies or modeled based on default body weight using allometric equations for birds or mammals in EPA (1993) Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook.

Inhalation rate

Inhalation rate is expressed in m3/d. Default wildlife receptor inhalation rates are based on published studies or modeled based on default body weight using allometric equations for birds or mammals in EPA (1993) Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook.

Body weight

Wildlife receptor body weights are expressed in kg. Note that entering a custom body weight will not automatically change the values for surface area and inhalation rate.

Area Use Factor

The Area Use Factor, or AUF, accounts for the size of the site relative to the size of the receptors home range. The default assumes the animal spends 100% of its time on the site, so the AUF = 1. This value can be adjusted to any value between 0 and 1 if the receptor uses the site less than 100% of the time.

Wildlife Exposure Parameters: References

Food Ingestion Rate (kg dw/kg BW d)

 Meadow Vole:

SSL (Male & Female) -- 90th %ile of distribution for male and female calculated using allometric relationship of Nagy et al. (1999) and full distribution of body weights from EPA (2003). Table 5 in EPA ECO-SSL guidance (EPA. 2003. Guidance for Developing Ecological Soil Screening Levels. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. OSWER Directive 92857-55. Attachment 4-1 Exposure factors and bioaccumulation models for derivation of wildlife Eco-SSL. http://www.epa.gov/ecotox/ecossl/pdf/ecossl_attachment_4-1.pdf

Nagy, K.A., I.A. Girard, and T.K. Brown. 1999. Energetics of free-ranging mammals, reptiles, and birds. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 19: 247-277.

Male Calculated based on selected male body weight and FMR and FIR data from Nagy et al. (1999) and EPA Eco-SSL Guidance (EPA 2003) for an herbivorous mammal.

Female Calculated based on selected male body weight and FMR and FIR data from Nagy et al. (1999) and EPA Eco-SSL Guidance (EPA 2003) for an herbivorous mammal.

 Mourning Dove:

SSL (Male & Female) -- 90th %ile of distribution for male and female calculated using allometric relationship of Nagy et al. (1999) and full distribution of body weights from EPA (2003). Table 5 in EPA ECO-SSL guidance (EPA. 2003. Guidance for Developing Ecological Soil Screening Levels. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. OSWER Directive 92857-55. Attachment 4-1 Exposure factors and bioaccumulation models for derivation of wildlife Eco-SSL. http://www.epa.gov/ecotox/ecossl/pdf/ecossl_attachment_4-1.pdf

Nagy, K.A., I.A. Girard, and T.K. Brown. 1999. Energetics of free-ranging mammals, reptiles, and birds. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 19: 247-277.

Male Calculated based on selected male body weight and FMR and FIR data from Nagy et al. (1999) and EPA Eco-SSL Guidance (EPA 2003) for a granivorous bird.

Female Calculated based on selected male body weight and FMR and FIR data from Nagy et al. (1999) and EPA Eco-SSL Guidance (EPA 2003) for a granivorous bird.

 Short-tailed Shrew:

SSL (Male & Female) -- 90th %ile of distribution for male and female calculated using allometric relationship of Nagy et al. (1999) and full distribution of body weights from EPA (2003). Table 5 in EPA ECO-SSL guidance (EPA. 2003. Guidance for Developing Ecological Soil Screening Levels. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. OSWER Directive 92857-55. Attachment 4-1 Exposure factors and bioaccumulation models for derivation of wildlife Eco-SSL. http://www.epa.gov/ecotox/ecossl/pdf/ecossl_attachment_4-1.pdf

Nagy, K.A., I.A. Girard, and T.K. Brown. 1999. Energetics of free-ranging mammals, reptiles, and birds. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 19: 247-277.

Male Calculated based on selected male body weight and FMR and FIR data from Nagy et al. (1999) and EPA Eco-SSL Guidance (EPA 2003) for an insectivorous mammal.

Female Calculated based on selected male body weight and FMR and FIR data from Nagy et al. (1999) and EPA Eco-SSL Guidance (EPA 2003) for an insectivorous mammal.

 Long-tailed Weasel:

SSL (Male & Female) -- 90th %ile of distribution for male and female calculated using allometric relationship of Nagy et al. (1999) and full distribution of body weights from EPA (2003). Table 5 in EPA ECO-SSL guidance (EPA. 2003. Guidance for Developing Ecological Soil Screening Levels. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. OSWER Directive 92857-55. Attachment 4-1 Exposure factors and bioaccumulation models for derivation of wildlife Eco-SSL. http://www.epa.gov/ecotox/ecossl/pdf/ecossl_attachment_4-1.pdf

Nagy, K.A., I.A. Girard, and T.K. Brown. 1999. Energetics of free-ranging mammals, reptiles, and birds. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 19: 247-277.

Male Calculated based on selected male body weight and FMR and FIR data from Nagy et al. (1999) and EPA Eco-SSL Guidance (EPA 2003) for a carnivorous mammal.

Female Calculated based on selected male body weight and FMR and FIR data from Nagy et al. (1999) and EPA Eco-SSL Guidance (EPA 2003) for a carnivorous mammal.

 American Woodcock:

SSL (Male & Female) -- 90th %ile of distribution for male and female calculated using allometric relationship of Nagy et al. (1999) and full distribution of body weights from EPA (2003). Table 5 in EPA ECO-SSL guidance (EPA. 2003. Guidance for Developing Ecological Soil Screening Levels. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. OSWER Directive 92857-55. Attachment 4-1 Exposure factors and bioaccumulation models for derivation of wildlife Eco-SSL. http://www.epa.gov/ecotox/ecossl/pdf/ecossl_attachment_4-1.pdf

Nagy, K.A., I.A. Girard, and T.K. Brown. 1999. Energetics of free-ranging mammals, reptiles, and birds. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 19: 247-277.

Male Calculated based on selected male body weight and FMR and FIR data from Nagy et al. (1999) and EPA Eco-SSL Guidance (EPA 2003) for an insectivorous bird.

Female Calculated based on selected male body weight and FMR and FIR data from Nagy et al. (1999) and EPA Eco-SSL Guidance (EPA 2003) for an insectivorous bird.

 Red-tailed Hawk:

SSL (Male & Female) -- 90th %ile of distribution for male and female calculated using allometric relationship of Nagy et al. (1999) and full distribution of body weights from EPA (2003). Table 5 in EPA ECO-SSL guidance (EPA. 2003. Guidance for Developing Ecological Soil Screening Levels. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. OSWER Directive 92857-55. Attachment 4-1 Exposure factors and bioaccumulation models for derivation of wildlife Eco-SSL. http://www.epa.gov/ecotox/ecossl/pdf/ecossl_attachment_4-1.pdf

Nagy, K.A., I.A. Girard, and T.K. Brown. 1999. Energetics of free-ranging mammals, reptiles, and birds. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 19: 247-277.

Male Calculated based on selected male body weight and FMR and FIR data from Nagy et al. (1999) and EPA Eco-SSL Guidance (EPA 2003) for a carnivorous bird.

Female Calculated based on selected male body weight and FMR and FIR data from Nagy et al. (1999) and EPA Eco-SSL Guidance (EPA 2003) for a carnivorous bird.

Diet

 Meadow Vole:

SSL (Male & Female) Diet for herbivorous mammal was assumed to be 100% plant material.

Male Diet for herbivorous mammal was assumed to be 100% plant material.

Female Diet for herbivorous mammal was assumed to be 100% plant material.

 Mourning Dove:

SSL (Male & Female) -- Diet for granivorous bird was assumed to be 100% plant material.

Male Diet for granivorous bird was assumed to be 100% plant material.

Female Diet for granivorous bird was assumed to be 100% plant material.

 Short-tailed Shrew:

SSL (Male & Female) -- Diet for insectivorous mammal was assumed to be 100% soil invertebrates.

Male Diet for insectivorous mammal was assumed to be 100% soil invertebrates.

Female Diet for insectivorous mammal was assumed to be 100% soil invertebrates.

 Long-tailed Weasel:

SSL (Male & Female) -- Diet for carnivorous mammal was assumed to be 100% small mammals.

Male Diet for carnivorous mammal was assumed to be 100% small mammals.

Female Diet for carnivorous mammal was assumed to be 100% small mammals.

 American Woodcock:

SSL (Male & Female) -- Diet for insectivorous bird was assumed to be 100% soil invertebrates.

Male Diet for insectivorous bird was assumed to be 100% soil invertebrates.

Female  Diet for insectivorous bird was assumed to be 100% soil invertebrates.

 Red-tailed Hawk:

SSL (Male & Female) -- Diet for carnivorous bird was assumed to be 100% small mammals.

Male Diet for carnivorous bird was assumed to be 100% small mammals.

Female Diet for carnivorous bird was assumed to be 100% small mammals.

Soil Ingestion (as a fraction of total diet)

 Meadow Vole:

SSL (Male & Female) -- 90th %ile of Monte Carlo analyses distribution from EPA ECO-SSL Guidance based on Beyer et al. (1994) model. Table 7 in EPA ECO-SSL guidance (EPA. 2003. Guidance for Developing Ecological Soil Screening Levels. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. OSWER Directive 92857-55. Attachment 4-1 Exposure factors and bioaccumulation models for derivation of wildlife Eco-SSL. http://www.epa.gov/ecotox/ecossl/pdf/ecossl_attachment_4-1.pdf

Beyer, W.N., E. Conner, and S. Gerould. 1994. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife. J. Wildl. Manage. 58: 375-382.

Male Beyer, W.N., E. Conner, and S. Gerould. 1994. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife. J. Wildl. Manage. 58: 375-382.

Female Beyer, W.N., E. Conner, and S. Gerould. 1994. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife. J. Wildl. Manage. 58: 375-382.

 Mourning Dove:

SSL (Male & Female) -- 90th %ile of Monte Carlo analyses distribution from EPA ECO-SSL Guidance based on Beyer et al. (1994) model. Table 7 in EPA ECO-SSL guidance (EPA. 2003. Guidance for Developing Ecological Soil Screening Levels. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. OSWER Directive 92857-55. Attachment 4-1 Exposure factors and bioaccumulation models for derivation of wildlife Eco-SSL. http://www.epa.gov/ecotox/ecossl/pdf/ecossl_attachment_4-1.pdf

Beyer, W.N., E. Conner, and S. Gerould. 1994. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife. J. Wildl. Manage. 58: 375-382.

Male % Soil ingestion was assumed to be the same as for Wild Turkey in Beyer, W.N., E. Conner, and S. Gerould. 1994. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife. J. Wildl. Manage. 58: 375-382.

Female % Soil ingestion was assumed to be the same as for Wild Turkey in Beyer, W.N., E. Conner, and S. Gerould. 1994. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife. J. Wildl. Manage. 58: 375-382.

 Short-tailed Shrew:

SSL (Male & Female) -- 90th %ile of Monte Carlo analyses distribution from EPA ECO-SSL Guidance based on Beyer et al. (1994) model. Table 7 in EPA ECO-SSL guidance (EPA. 2003. Guidance for Developing Ecological Soil Screening Levels. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. OSWER Directive 92857-55. Attachment 4-1 Exposure factors and bioaccumulation models for derivation of wildlife Eco-SSL. http://www.epa.gov/ecotox/ecossl/pdf/ecossl_attachment_4-1.pdf

Beyer, W.N., E. Conner, and S. Gerould. 1994. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife. J. Wildl. Manage. 58: 375-382.

Male Based on unpublished data of C. Garten as reported in Talmage, S.S., and B.T. Walton. 1993. Food chain transfer and potential renal toxicity to small mammals at a contaminated terrestrial field site. Ecotoxicol. 2: 243-256. (Sylvia Talmage, Pers. Comm.)

Female Based on unpublished data of C. Garten as reported in Talmage, S.S., and B.T. Walton. 1993. Food chain transfer and potential renal toxicity to small mammals at a contaminated terrestrial field site. Ecotoxicol. 2: 243-256. (Sylvia Talmage, Pers. Comm.)

 Long-tailed Weasel:

SSL (Male & Female) -- 90th %ile of Monte Carlo analyses distribution from EPA ECO-SSL Guidance based on Beyer et al. (1994) model. Table 7 in EPA ECO-SSL guidance (EPA. 2003. Guidance for Developing Ecological Soil Screening Levels. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. OSWER Directive 92857-55. Attachment 4-1 Exposure factors and bioaccumulation models for derivation of wildlife Eco-SSL. http://www.epa.gov/ecotox/ecossl/pdf/ecossl_attachment_4-1.pdf

Beyer, W.N., E. Conner, and S. Gerould. 1994. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife. J. Wildl. Manage. 58: 375-382.

Male % Soil ingestion was assumed to be the same as for Red Fox in Beyer, W.N., E. Conner, and S. Gerould. 1994. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife. J. Wildl. Manage. 58: 375-382.

Female % Soil ingestion was assumed to be the same as for Red Fox in Beyer, W.N., E. Conner, and S. Gerould. 1994. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife. J. Wildl. Manage. 58: 375-382.

 American Woodcock:

SSL (Male & Female) -- 90th %ile of Monte Carlo analyses distribution from EPA ECO-SSL Guidance based on Beyer et al. (1994) model. Table 7 in EPA ECO-SSL guidance (EPA. 2003. Guidance for Developing Ecological Soil Screening Levels. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. OSWER Directive 92857-55. Attachment 4-1 Exposure factors and bioaccumulation models for derivation of wildlife Eco-SSL. http://www.epa.gov/ecotox/ecossl/pdf/ecossl_attachment_4-1.pdf

Beyer, W.N., E. Conner, and S. Gerould. 1994. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife. J. Wildl. Manage. 58: 375-382.

Male Beyer, W.N., E. Conner, and S. Gerould. 1994. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife. J. Wildl. Manage. 58: 375-382.  

Female Beyer, W.N., E. Conner, and S. Gerould. 1994. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife. J. Wildl. Manage. 58: 375-382.

 Red-tailed Hawk:

SSL (Male & Female) -- 90th %ile of Monte Carlo analyses distribution from EPA ECO-SSL Guidance based on Beyer et al. (1994) model. Table 7 in EPA ECO-SSL guidance (EPA. 2003. Guidance for Developing Ecological Soil Screening Levels. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. OSWER Directive 92857-55. Attachment 4-1 Exposure factors and bioaccumulation models for derivation of wildlife Eco-SSL. http://www.epa.gov/ecotox/ecossl/pdf/ecossl_attachment_4-1.pdf

Beyer, W.N., E. Conner, and S. Gerould. 1994. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife. J. Wildl. Manage. 58: 375-382.

Male % Soil ingestion was assumed to be the same as for Red Fox in Beyer, W.N., E. Conner, and S. Gerould. 1994. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife. J. Wildl. Manage. 58: 375-382.

Female % Soil ingestion was assumed to be the same as for Red Fox in Beyer, W.N., E. Conner, and S. Gerould. 1994. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife. J. Wildl. Manage. 58: 375-382.

Adherence Factor

 A conservative human health value of 1 mg/cm2 (0.000001 kg/cm2) is set as the default for the species provided in SADA.

United States Environmental Protection Agency Region IV. February 11, 1992. New Interim Region IV Guidance Memorandum from Region IV, Atlanta, Georgia.

Surface Area (cm2)

 Meadow Vole:

Male & Female -- Based on body weight (g) to surface area relationship of SA (cm2) = 12.3 BW 0.65 of Stahl (1967) as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a.

Male Based on body weight (g) to surface area relationship of SA (cm2) = 12.3 BW 0.65 of Stahl (1967) as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a.

Female Based on body weight (g) to surface area relationship of SA (cm2) = 12.3 BW 0.65 of Stahl (1967) as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a.

 Mourning Dove:

Male & Female -- Based on body weight (g) to surface area relationship of SA (cm2) = 10 BW 0.667 of Walsberg and King 1978 as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a.

Male Based on body weight (g) to surface area relationship of SA (cm2) = 10 BW 0.667 of Walsberg and King 1978 as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a.

Female Based on body weight (g) to surface area relationship of SA (cm2) = 10 BW 0.667 of Walsberg and King 1978 as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a.

 Short-tailed Shrew:

Male & Female -- Based on body weight (g) to surface area relationship of SA (cm2) = 12.3 BW 0.65 of Stahl (1967) as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a.

Male Based on body weight (g) to surface area relationship of SA (cm2) = 12.3 BW 0.65 of Stahl (1967) as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a.

Female Based on body weight (g) to surface area relationship of SA (cm2) = 12.3 BW 0.65 of Stahl (1967) as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a.

 Long-tailed Weasel:

Male & Female -- Based on body weight (g) to surface area relationship of SA (cm2) = 12.3 BW 0.65 of Stahl (1967) as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a.

Male Based on body weight (g) to surface area relationship of SA (cm2) = 12.3 BW 0.65 of Stahl (1967) as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a.

Female Based on body weight (g) to surface area relationship of SA (cm2) = 12.3 BW 0.65 of Stahl (1967) as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a.

 American Woodcock:

Male & Female -- Based on body weight (g) to surface area relationship of SA (cm2) = 10 BW 0.667 of Walsberg and King 1978 as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a.

Male Based on body weight (g) to surface area relationship of SA (cm2) = 10 BW 0.667 of Walsberg and King 1978 as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a.

Female Based on body weight (g) to surface area relationship of SA (cm2) = 10 BW 0.667 of Walsberg and King 1978 as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a.

 Red-tailed Hawk:

Male & Female -- Based on body weight (g) to surface area relationship of SA (cm2) = 10 BW 0.667 of Walsberg and King 1978 as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a.

Male Based on body weight (g) to surface area relationship of SA (cm2) = 10 BW 0.667 of Walsberg and King 1978 as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a.

Female Based on body weight (g) to surface area relationship of SA (cm2) = 10 BW 0.667 of Walsberg and King 1978 as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a.

Inhalation Rate (m3/d)

 Meadow Vole:

Male & Female -- Estimated using allometric relationship between body weight and inhalation rate for mammals developed by Stahl (1967) as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a. Result was multiplied by a 3x correction factor applied to account for differences between field and standard metabolic rates.

Male Estimated using allometric relationship between body weight and inhalation rate for mammals developed by Stahl (1967) as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a. Result was multiplied by a 3x correction factor applied to account for differences between field and standard metabolic rates.

Female Estimated using allometric relationship between body weight and inhalation rate for mammals developed by Stahl (1967) as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a. Result was multiplied by a 3x correction factor applied to account for differences between field and standard metabolic rates.

 Mourning Dove:

Male & Female -- Estimated using allometric relationship between body weight and inhalation rate for nonpasserine birds developed by Lasiewski and Calder (1971) as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a. Result was multiplied by a 3x correction factor applied to account for differences between field and standard metabolic rates.

Male Estimated using allometric relationship between body weight and inhalation rate for nonpasserine birds developed by Lasiewski and Calder (1971) as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a. Result was multiplied by a 3x correction factor applied to account for differences between field and standard metabolic rates.

Female Estimated using allometric relationship between body weight and inhalation rate for nonpasserine birds developed by Lasiewski and Calder (1971) as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a. Result was multiplied by a 3x correction factor applied to account for differences between field and standard metabolic rates.

 Short-tailed Shrew:

Male & Female -- Estimated using allometric relationship between body weight and inhalation rate for mammals developed by Stahl (1967) as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a. Result was multiplied by a 3x correction factor applied to account for differences between field and standard metabolic rates.

Male Estimated using allometric relationship between body weight and inhalation rate for mammals developed by Stahl (1967) as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a. Result was multiplied by a 3x correction factor applied to account for differences between field and standard metabolic rates.

Female Estimated using allometric relationship between body weight and inhalation rate for mammals developed by Stahl (1967) as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a. Result was multiplied by a 3x correction factor applied to account for differences between field and standard metabolic rates.

 Long-tailed Weasel:

Male & Female -- Estimated using allometric relationship between body weight and inhalation rate for mammals developed by Stahl (1967) as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a. Result was multiplied by a 3x correction factor applied to account for differences between field and standard metabolic rates.

Male Estimated using allometric relationship between body weight and inhalation rate for mammals developed by Stahl (1967) as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a. Result was multiplied by a 3x correction factor applied to account for differences between field and standard metabolic rates.

Female Estimated using allometric relationship between body weight and inhalation rate for mammals developed by Stahl (1967) as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a. Result was multiplied by a 3x correction factor applied to account for differences between field and standard metabolic rates.

 American Woodcock:

Male & Female -- Estimated using allometric relationship between body weight and inhalation rate for nonpasserine birds developed by Lasiewski and Calder (1971) as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a. Result was multiplied by a 3x correction factor applied to account for differences between field and standard metabolic rates.

Male Estimated using allometric relationship between body weight and inhalation rate for nonpasserine birds developed by Lasiewski and Calder (1971) as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a. Result was multiplied by a 3x correction factor applied to account for differences between field and standard metabolic rates.

Female Estimated using allometric relationship between body weight and inhalation rate for nonpasserine birds developed by Lasiewski and Calder (1971) as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a. Result was multiplied by a 3x correction factor applied to account for differences between field and standard metabolic rates.

 Red-tailed Hawk:

Male & Female -- Estimated using allometric relationship between body weight and inhalation rate for nonpasserine birds developed by Lasiewski and Calder (1971) as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a. Result was multiplied by a 3x correction factor applied to account for differences between field and standard metabolic rates.

Male Estimated using allometric relationship between body weight and inhalation rate for nonpasserine birds developed by Lasiewski and Calder (1971) as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a. Result was multiplied by a 3x correction factor applied to account for differences between field and standard metabolic rates.

Female Estimated using allometric relationship between body weight and inhalation rate for nonpasserine birds developed by Lasiewski and Calder (1971) as reported in EPA. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a. Result was multiplied by a 3x correction factor applied to account for differences between field and standard metabolic rates.

Body Weight (kg)

 Meadow Vole:

SSL (Male & Female) -- Mean for males and females based on Monte Carlo analyses of literature data. Appendix 4-1 Table 2 in EPA ECO-SSL guidance (EPA. 2003. Guidance for Developing Ecological Soil Screening Levels. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. OSWER Directive 92857-55. Attachment 4-1 Exposure factors and bioaccumulation models for derivation of wildlife Eco-SSL. http://www.epa.gov/ecotox/ecossl/pdf/ecossl_attachment_4-1.pdf

Male Reich, L.M. 1981. Microtus pennsylvanicus. Mammalian Species Account. Amer. Soc. Mammal. Species No. 159. 8 pp.

Female Reich, L.M. 1981. Microtus pennsylvanicus. Mammalian Species Account. Amer. Soc. Mammal. Species No. 159. 8 pp.

 Mourning Dove:

SSL (Male & Female) -- Mean for males and females based on Monte Carlo analyses of literature data. Appendix 4-1 Table 2 in EPA ECO-SSL guidance (EPA. 2003. Guidance for Developing Ecological Soil Screening Levels. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. OSWER Directive 92857-55. Attachment 4-1 Exposure factors and bioaccumulation models for derivation of wildlife Eco-SSL. http://www.epa.gov/ecotox/ecossl/pdf/ecossl_attachment_4-1.pdf

Male Dunning, J.B. 1993. CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Female Dunning, J.B. 1993. CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

 Short-tailed Shrew:

SSL (Male & Female) -- Mean for males and females based on Monte Carlo analyses of literature data. Appendix 4-1 Table 2 in EPA ECO-SSL guidance (EPA. 2003. Guidance for Developing Ecological Soil Screening Levels. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. OSWER Directive 92857-55. Attachment 4-1 Exposure factors and bioaccumulation models for derivation of wildlife Eco-SSL. http://www.epa.gov/ecotox/ecossl/pdf/ecossl_attachment_4-1.pdf

Male Silva, M., and J.A. Downing. 1995. CRC Handbook of Mammalian Body Masses. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Female Silva, M., and J.A. Downing. 1995. CRC Handbook of Mammalian Body Masses. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

 Long-tailed Weasel:

SSL (Male & Female) -- Mean for males and females based on Monte Carlo analyses of literature data. Appendix 4-1 Table 2 in EPA ECO-SSL guidance (EPA. 2003. Guidance for Developing Ecological Soil Screening Levels. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. OSWER Directive 92857-55. Attachment 4-1 Exposure factors and bioaccumulation models for derivation of wildlife Eco-SSL. http://www.epa.gov/ecotox/ecossl/pdf/ecossl_attachment_4-1.pdf

Male Mumford, R.E., and J.O. Whitaker, Jr. 1982. Mammals of Indiana. Indiana Univ. Press, Bloomington.

Female Mumford, R.E., and J.O. Whitaker, Jr. 1982. Mammals of Indiana. Indiana Univ. Press, Bloomington.

 American Woodcock:

SSL (Male & Female) -- Mean for males and females based on Monte Carlo analyses of literature data. Appendix 4-1 Table 2 in EPA ECO-SSL guidance (EPA. 2003. Guidance for Developing Ecological Soil Screening Levels. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. OSWER Directive 92857-55. Attachment 4-1 Exposure factors and bioaccumulation models for derivation of wildlife Eco-SSL. http://www.epa.gov/ecotox/ecossl/pdf/ecossl_attachment_4-1.pdf

Male Keppie, D.M., and R.M. Whiting, Jr. 1994. American Woodcock (Scolopax minor). In The Birds of North America, No. 100. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

Female Keppie, D.M., and R.M. Whiting, Jr. 1994. American Woodcock (Scolopax minor). In The Birds of North America, No. 100. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

 Red-tailed Hawk:

SSL (Male & Female) -- Mean for males and females based on Monte Carlo analyses of literature data. Appendix 4-1 Table 2 in EPA ECO-SSL guidance (EPA. 2003. Guidance for Developing Ecological Soil Screening Levels. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. OSWER Directive 92857-55. Attachment 4-1 Exposure factors and bioaccumulation models for derivation of wildlife Eco-SSL. http://www.epa.gov/ecotox/ecossl/pdf/ecossl_attachment_4-1.pdf

Male Preston, C.R., and R.D. Beane. 1993. Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). In The Birds of North America, No. 52. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

Female Preston, C.R., and R.D. Beane. 1993. Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). In The Birds of North America, No. 52. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.