Bioaccumulation

Overall model for estimation of soil-to-earthworm BAFs for non-ionic organic analytes (EPA 2003):

 

image\v4ht0262.gif

where  BAFworm = soil to earthworm bioaccumulation factor (image\v4ht0263.gif)

foc = fraction organic carbon in soil. Default is set to 1%.

Kow = octanol-water partitioning coefficient.

 

Model for estimation of soil-to-plant foliage BAFs for non-ionic organic analytes (EPA 2003):

 

image\v4ht0264.gif

 

where  BAFplant = soil to plant foliage bioaccumulation factor (image\v4ht0265.gif)

Kow = octanol-water partitioning coefficient.

 

Sources for soil-to-plant bioaccumulation factors

Bioaccumulation factors were obtained from a variety of sources. Preference was given to regression models from EPAs soil screening level guidance (EPA 2003) and Bechtel-Jacobs (1998). Other sources included IAEA (1994), NCRP (1989), and Baes et al. (1984). Values for non-ionic organic compounds not included in the list below were calculated based on Kow using the relationship developed for EPAs soil screening levels (EPA 2003): BAFplant = 10 0.4965 log Kow + 2.563. Values are presented on a dry weight basis.

Analyte

BAF type

Source

2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene

soil-to-plant

Median from EPA (2003) ECO-SSL guidance.

4,4-DDD

soil-to-plant

Assumed value same as for DDE.

4,4-DDE

soil-to-plant

Median from EPA (2003) ECO-SSL

4,4-DDT

soil-to-plant

Median from EPA (2003) ECO-SSL guidance

Aluminum

soil-to-plant

Baes et al. (1984)

Anthracene

soil-to-plant

Regression model from EPA (2003) ECO-SSL guidance

Antimony

soil-to-plant

Regression model from EPA (2003) ECO-SSL guidance

Arsenic

soil-to-plant

Median value from Bechtel-Jacobs (1998)

Barium

soil-to-plant

Median value from Bechtel-Jacobs (1998)

Benz[a]anthracene

soil-to-plant

Median from EPA (2003) ECO-SSL guidance

Benzo(ghi)perylene

soil-to-plant

Regression model from EPA (2003) ECO-SSL guidance

Benzo[a]pyrene

soil-to-plant

Regression model from EPA (2003) ECO-SSL guidance

Benzo[b]fluoranthene

soil-to-plant

Median from EPA (2003) ECO-SSL guidance

Benzo[k]fluoranthene

soil-to-plant

Median from EPA (2003) ECO-SSL guidance

Beryllium

soil-to-plant

Baes et al. 1984

Cadmium

soil-to-plant

Regression model from Bechtel-Jacobs (1998).

Calcium

soil-to-plant

Baes et al. 1984

Chromium III

soil-to-plant

Median value from Bechtel-Jacobs (1998)

Chrysene

soil-to-plant

Median from EPA (2003) ECO-SSL guidance

Cobalt

soil-to-plant

Median value from Bechtel-Jacobs (1998)

Copper

soil-to-plant

Regression model from Bechtel-Jacobs (1998).

Dibenz[ah]anthracene

soil-to-plant

Median from EPA (2003) ECO-SSL guidance

Dieldrin

soil-to-plant

Regression model from EPA (2003) ECO-SSL guidance

Fluoranthene

soil-to-plant

Median from EPA (2003) ECO-SSL guidance

Fluorene

soil-to-plant

Median from EPA (2003) ECO-SSL guidance

Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene

soil-to-plant

Median from EPA (2003) ECO-SSL guidance

Iodine

soil-to-plant

Expected value from IAEA (1994).

Iron

soil-to-plant

Expected value from IAEA (1994).

Lanthanum

soil-to-plant

Foliage: expected value for mixed green vegetables from IAEA (1994); Seeds: expected value for beans from IAEA (1994).

Lead

soil-to-plant

Regression model from Bechtel-Jacobs (1998).

Lithium

soil-to-plant

Baes et al. (1984)

Magnesium

soil-to-plant

Baes et al. (1984)

Manganese

soil-to-plant

Median value from Bechtel-Jacobs (1998)

Mercury

soil-to-plant

Dry forage value from NCRP (1989)

Molybdenum

soil-to-plant

Expected value from IAEA (1994).

Naphthalene

soil-to-plant

Median from EPA (2003) ECO-SSL guidance

Nickel

soil-to-plant

Regression model from Bechtel-Jacobs (1998).

Niobium

soil-to-plant

Expected value for rape from IAEA (1994).

Pentachlorophenol

soil-to-plant

Estimated from Kow: EPA (2003) ECO-SSL guidance. Note: EPA guidance is unclear whether median should be 9.615 from Table 8 or 0.24 from Table 11. SADA currently references Table 8.

Phenanthrene

soil-to-plant

Median from EPA (2003) ECO-SSL guidance

Phosphorus (total)

soil-to-plant

Dry forage value from NCRP (1989)

Potassium

soil-to-plant

Dry forage value from NCRP (1989)

Pyrene

soil-to-plant

Median from EPA (2003) ECO-SSL guidance

RDX (Cyclonite)

soil-to-plant

Median from EPA (2003) ECO-SSL guidance.

Selenium

soil-to-plant

Regression model from Bechtel-Jacobs (1998).

Silver

soil-to-plant

Median value from Bechtel-Jacobs (1998)

Sodium

soil-to-plant

Expected value from IAEA (1994).

Strontium

soil-to-plant

Foliage: expected value for grass from IAEA (1994). Seeds: expected value for peas from IAEA (1994).

Sulfur

soil-to-plant

Dry forage value from NCRP (1989)

Technetium

soil-to-plant

Foliage: expected value for spinach from IAEA (1994). Seeds: expected value for peas from IAEA (1994).

Thallium

soil-to-plant

Baes et al. (1984)

Tin

soil-to-plant

Dry forage value from NCRP (1989)

Titanium

soil-to-plant

Baes et al. (1984)

Tungsten

soil-to-plant

Baes et al. (1984)

Uranium

soil-to-plant

Foliage: expected value for grass from IAEA (1994). Seeds: expected value for cereal from IAEA (1994).

Vanadium

soil-to-plant

Baes et al. (1984)

Zinc

soil-to-plant

Regression model from Bechtel-Jacobs (1998).

Zirconium

soil-to-plant

Expected value from IAEA (1994).

 

References:

 

Baes, C.F., III, R.D. Sharp, A.L. Sjoreen, and R.W. Shor. 1984. A Review and Analysis of Parameters for Assessing Transport of Environmentally Released Radionuclides through Agriculture, ORNL-5786, Health and Safety Research Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. 150pp.

Bechtel-Jacobs. 1998. Empirical Models for the Uptake of Inorganic Chemicals from Soil by Plants. Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC, Oak Ridge, TN. BJC/OR-133

EPA. 2003. Guidance for Developing Ecological Soil Screening Levels. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. OSWER Directive 92857-55. Table 8 in Attachment 4-1 Exposure factors and bioaccumulation models for derivation of wildlife Eco-SSL. http://www.epa.gov/ecotox/ecossl/pdf/ecossl_attachment_4-1.pdf

IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). 1994. Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Temperate Environments. Technical Report Series No. 364.

NCRP. 1989. Screening techniques for determining compliance with environmental standards. Releases of radionuclides to the atmosphere. NCRP Commentary No. 3. Jan. 1989. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, MD.

Sources for soil-to-invertebrate bioaccumulation factors

Bioaccumulation factors were obtained from a variety of sources. Preference was given to regression models from EPAs soil screening level guidance (EPA 2003) and Sample et al. (1999). Median values from Sample et al. (1998) were included for several analytes. Values for non-ionic organic compounds not included in the list below were calculated based on Kow using the relationship developed for EPAs soil screening levels (EPA 2003):

image\v4ht0266.gif

 

where  BAFworm = soil to earthworm bioaccumulation factor (image\v4ht0263.gif)

foc = fraction organic carbon in soil. Default is set to 1%.

Kow = octanol-water partitioning coefficient.

 

Analyte

BAF type

Source

2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene

soil-to-earthworm

Median from EPA (2003) Eco-SSL guidance.

4,4-DDD

soil-to-earthworm

Median from EPA (2003) Eco-SSL guidance.

4,4-DDE

soil-to-earthworm

Median from EPA (2003) Eco-SSL guidance.

4,4-DDT

soil-to-earthworm

Median from EPA (2003) Eco-SSL guidance.

Acenaphthene

soil-to-earthworm

Median from EPA (2003) Eco-SSL guidance.

Anthracene

soil-to-earthworm

Median from EPA (2003) Eco-SSL guidance.

Arsenic

soil-to-earthworm

Regression from Sample et al. 1999

Barium

soil-to-earthworm

Median value from Sample et al. 1998:earthworms

Benz[a]anthracene

soil-to-earthworm

Median from EPA (2003) Eco-SSL guidance.

Benzo(ghi)perylene

soil-to-earthworm

Median from EPA (2003) Eco-SSL guidance.

Benzo[a]pyrene

soil-to-earthworm

Median from EPA (2003) Eco-SSL guidance.

Benzo[b]fluoranthene

soil-to-earthworm

Median from EPA (2003) Eco-SSL guidance.

Benzo[k]fluoranthene

soil-to-earthworm

Median from EPA (2003) Eco-SSL guidance.

Beryllium

soil-to-earthworm

Median value from Sample et al. 1998:earthworms

Cadmium

soil-to-earthworm

Regression from Sample et al. 1999

Chromium III

soil-to-earthworm

Median value from Sample et al. 1999

Chrysene

soil-to-earthworm

Median from EPA (2003) Eco-SSL guidance.

Cobalt

soil-to-earthworm

Median value from Sample et al. 1998:earthworms

Copper

soil-to-earthworm

Median value from Sample et al. 1999

Dibenz[ah]anthracene

soil-to-earthworm

Median from EPA (2003) Eco-SSL guidance.

Dieldrin

soil-to-earthworm

Median from EPA (2003) Eco-SSL guidance.

Lead

soil-to-earthworm

Regression from Sample et al. 1999

Manganese

soil-to-earthworm

Regression from Sample et al. 1999

Naphthalene

soil-to-earthworm

Median from EPA (2003) Eco-SSL guidance.

Nickel

soil-to-earthworm

Median value from Sample et al. 1999

PAHs, Total

soil-to-earthworm

Median from EPA (2003) Eco-SSL guidance.

Pentachlorophenol

soil-to-earthworm

Median from EPA (2003) Eco-SSL guidance.

Phenanthrene

soil-to-earthworm

Median from EPA (2003) Eco-SSL guidance.

RDX (Cyclonite)

soil-to-earthworm

Median from EPA (2003) Eco-SSL guidance.

Selenium

soil-to-earthworm

Regression from Sample et al. 1999

Silver

soil-to-earthworm

Median value from Sample et al. 1998:earthworms

Zinc

soil-to-earthworm

Regression from Sample et al. 1999

 

References:

EPA. 2003. Guidance for Developing Ecological Soil Screening Levels. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. OSWER Directive 92857-55. Table 8 in Attachment 4-1 Exposure factors and bioaccumulation models for derivation of wildlife Eco-SSL. http://www.epa.gov/ecotox/ecossl/pdf/ecossl_attachment_4-1.pdf

Sample, B.E., J.J. Beauchamp, R.A. Efroymson, G.W. Suter,II, and T.L. Ashwood. 1998. Development and Validation of Bioaccumulation Models for Earthworms. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN. 93 pp, ES/ER/TM-220

Sample, B.E., J.J. Beauchamp, R.A. Efroymson, G.W. Suter,II. 1999. Literature-derived bioaccumulation models for earthworms: development and validation. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 18:2110-2120.

 

Sources for soil-to-mammal and diet-to-mammal bioaccumulation factors

Bioaccumulation factors were obtained from a variety of sources. Preference was given to soil-to-tissue regression models from EPAs soil screening level guidance (EPA 2003) and Sample et al. (1998) followed by point estimates of soil-to-tissue biotransfer. Where soil-to-tissue values were lacking, diet-to-tissue values from IAEA (1994), NCRP (1989), and Baes et al. (1984) were included.

Analyte

BAF type

Source

4,4-DDD

diet-to-mammal

Assumed same as value for DDT from EPA (2003) ECO-SSL guidance

4,4-DDE

diet-to-mammal

Median from EPA (2003) ECO-SSL guidance

4,4-DDT

diet-to-mammal

Median from EPA (2003) ECO-SSL guidance

Aluminum

diet-to-mammal

Baes et al. 1984

Antimony

diet-to-mammal

Baes et al. 1984

Arsenic

soil-to-mammal

Regression for mammals from Sample et al. 1998

Barium

diet-to-mammal

Baes et al. 1984

Beryllium

diet-to-mammal

Baes et al. 1984

Boron

diet-to-mammal

Baes et al. 1984

Cadmium

soil-to-mammal

Regression for herbivorous mammals from Sample et al. 1998

Calcium

diet-to-mammal

From IAEA (1994) beef transfer factor.

Chlorine

diet-to-mammal

From IAEA (1994) beef transfer factor.

Chromium III

soil-to-mammal

Regression for mammals from Sample et al. 1998

Cobalt

soil-to-mammal

Regression for mammals from Sample et al. 1998

Copper

soil-to-mammal

Regression for mammals from Sample et al. 1998

Dieldrin

diet-to-mammal

Median from EPA (2003) ECO-SSL guidance

Iodine

diet-to-mammal

From IAEA (1994) beef transfer factor.

Iron

diet-to-mammal

From IAEA (1994) beef transfer factor.

Lead

soil-to-mammal

Regression for mammals from Sample et al. 1998

Lithium

diet-to-mammal

Baes et al. (1984).

Magnesium

diet-to-mammal

From IAEA (1994) beef transfer factor.

Manganese

soil-to-mammal

Median value for mammals from Sample et al. 1998

Mercury

diet-to-mammal

From NCRP (1989) beef transfer factor.

Molybdenum

diet-to-mammal

From IAEA (1994) beef transfer factor.

Nickel

soil-to-mammal

Regression for mammals from Sample et al. 1998

Niobium

diet-to-mammal

From IAEA (1994) beef transfer factor.

Pentachlorophenol

diet-to-bird

Regression from Stedman et al. (1980) as reported in EPA (2003) ECO-SSL guidance: tissue (dry wgt.) = 0.00452 x Cdiet + 0.198

Phosphorus (total)

diet-to-mammal

From IAEA (1994) beef transfer factor.

Potassium

diet-to-mammal

From IAEA (1994) beef transfer factor.

Selenium

soil-to-mammal

Regression for mammals from Sample et al. 1998

Silver

soil-to-mammal

Median value for mammals from Sample et al. 1998

Sodium

diet-to-mammal

From IAEA (1994) beef transfer factor.

Strontium

diet-to-mammal

From IAEA (1994) beef transfer factor.

Technetium

diet-to-mammal

From IAEA (1994) beef transfer factor.

Thallium

diet-to-mammal

Baes et al. (1984).

Tin

diet-to-mammal

From NCRP (1989) beef transfer factor.

Titanium

diet-to-mammal

Baes et al. (1984).

Tungsten

diet-to-mammal

Baes et al. (1984).

Uranium

diet-to-mammal

From IAEA (1994) beef transfer factor.

Vanadium

diet-to-mammal

Baes et al. (1984).

Zinc

soil-to-mammal

Regression for herbivorous mammals from Sample et al. 1998

Zirconium

diet-to-mammal

From IAEA (1994) beef transfer factor.

References:

Baes, C.F., III, R.D. Sharp, A.L. Sjoreen, and R.W. Shor. 1984. A Review and Analysis of Parameters for Assessing Transport of Environmentally Released Radionuclides through Agriculture, ORNL-5786, Health and Safety Research Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. 150pp.

EPA. 2003. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Vol. 1. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA/600/R-93/187a. December 1993.

EPA. 2003. Guidance for Developing Ecological Soil Screening Levels. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. OSWER Directive 92857-55. Table 8 in Attachment 4-1 Exposure factors and bioaccumulation models for derivation of wildlife Eco-SSL. http://www.epa.gov/ecotox/ecossl/pdf/ecossl_attachment_4-1.pdf

IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). 1994. Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Temperate Environments. Technical Report Series No. 364.

NCRP. 1989. Screening techniques for determining compliance with environmental standards. Releases of radionuclides to the atmosphere. NCRP Commentary No. 3. Jan. 1989. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, MD.

Sample, B.E., J.J. Beauchamp, R.A. Efroymson, G W. Suter II, and T.L. Ashwood. 1998. Development and Validation of Bioaccumulation Models for Small Mammals, ES/ER/TM-219, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.